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  1. Departments and Centres
  2. Keeley, Jack
  3. Natural gas
  4. Alternative Energy and Shale Gas Encyclopedia | Wiley Online Books

Many gas-bearing formations also contain water, which will flow up the wellbore to the surface along with the gas, in both hydraulically fractured and non-hydraulically fractured wells. This produced water often has a high content of salt and other dissolved minerals that occur in the formation. The volume of water used to hydraulically fracture wells varies according to the hydraulic fracturing technique. In the United States, the average volume of water used per hydraulic fracture has been reported as nearly 7, gallons for vertical oil and gas wells prior to , nearly , gallons for vertical oil and gas wells between —, and nearly 3 million gallons for horizontal gas wells between — Determining which fracking technique is appropriate for well productivity depends largely on the properties of the reservoir rock from which to extract oil or gas.

If the rock is characterized by low-permeability — which refers to its ability to let substances, i. Natural gas in its native state is colorless and almost odorless. In order to assist consumers in detecting leaks , an odorizer with a scent similar to rotten eggs, tert-Butylthiol t-butyl mercaptan , is added. Sometimes a related compound, thiophane , may be used in the mixture. Situations in which an odorant that is added to natural gas can be detected by analytical instrumentation, but cannot be properly detected by an observer with a normal sense of smell, have occurred in the natural gas industry.

This is caused by odor masking, when one odorant overpowers the sensation of another. As of , the industry is conducting research on the causes of odor masking. Explosions caused by natural gas leaks occur a few times each year.


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Individual homes, small businesses and other structures are most frequently affected when an internal leak builds up gas inside the structure. Frequently, the blast is powerful enough to significantly damage a building but leave it standing. In these cases, the people inside tend to have minor to moderate injuries.

Departments and Centres

Occasionally, the gas can collect in high enough quantities to cause a deadly explosion, disintegrating one or more buildings in the process. The gas usually dissipates readily outdoors, but can sometimes collect in dangerous quantities if flow rates are high enough. However, considering the tens of millions of structures that use the fuel, the individual risk of using natural gas is very low.

Natural gas heating systems may cause carbon monoxide poisoning if unvented or poorly vented. In , natural gas furnaces, space heaters, water heaters and stoves were blamed for 11 carbon monoxide deaths in the US. Another 22 deaths were attributed to appliances running on liquified petroleum gas, and 17 deaths on gas of unspecified type. Improvements in natural gas furnace designs have greatly reduced CO poisoning concerns. Gas prices for end users vary greatly across the EU. Moreover, it would help to resolve supply and global warming issues, [] as well as strengthen relations with other Mediterranean countries and foster investments in the region.

Gas sales to domestic consumers are often in units of standard cubic feet scf. Gas meters measure the volume of gas used, and this is converted to therms by multiplying the volume by the energy content of the gas used during that period, which varies slightly over time. The typical annual consumption of a single family residence is 1, therms or one Residential Customer Equivalent RCE. A million decatherms is a trillion BTU, roughly a billion cubic feet of natural gas.

The price of natural gas varies greatly depending on location and type of consumer. Canada uses metric measure for internal trade of petrochemical products. Consequently, natural gas is sold by the gigajoule GJ , cubic meter m 3 or thousand cubic meters E3m3. Distribution infrastructure and meters almost always meter volume cubic foot or cubic meter.

Keeley, Jack

Some jurisdictions, such as Saskatchewan, sell gas by volume only. Other jurisdictions, such as Alberta, gas is sold by the energy content GJ. In these areas, almost all meters for residential and small commercial customers measure volume m 3 or ft 3 , and billing statements include a multiplier to convert the volume to energy content of the local gas supply. Outside of the European Union, the U. Long term natural gas distribution contracts are signed in cubic meters, and LNG contracts are in metric tonnes.

In they produced Gazprom supplied Europe with In August , possibly the largest natural gas discovery in history was made and notified by an Italian gas company ENI.

ENI said that the energy is about5. The field was found in the deep waters off the northern coast of Egypt and ENI claims that it will be the largest ever in the Mediterranean and even the world. Natural gas may be stored by adsorbing it to the porous solids called sorbents. The optimal condition for methane storage is at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Pressures up to 4 MPa about 40 times atmospheric pressure will yield greater storage capacity.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: List of natural gas fields , List of countries by natural gas proven reserves , and List of countries by natural gas production. The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject.

You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Shale gas. Main article: History of manufactured gas. Main article: Biogas. Main article: Natural gas processing.

Schematic flow diagram of a typical natural gas processing plant. Main article: Gas depletion. See also: Industrial gas. See also: Environmental impact of the energy industry.

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.


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May See also: Atmospheric methane. Main article: Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing. Main article: Natural gas prices. See also: Billion cubic metres of natural gas. Energy portal Renewable energy portal. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 11 June Archived from the original on 9 July Retrieved 14 July Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 10 November American Geosciences Institute. Retrieved 1 May The Guardian. US Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 27 May Energy Information Administration eia.

Retrieved 1 December The Economics of the Gas Supply Industry. Retrieved 18 February International Energy Agency.

Natural gas

Primus Green Energy. February Retrieved 5 March Shell Global. Retrieved 19 November Archived from the original on 8 July Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 6 February Retrieved 26 August Archived from the original PDF on 4 December New Scientist. Will Move From Abundance to Imports".

Greentech Media. New York Times. Retrieved 25 October Desert Sun. Retrieved 4 November Financial Times. Retrieved 18 October Yang 9 August National Geographic. Martinez 7 September Nature Geoscience. Bibcode : NatGe University of Minnesota. Archived from the original PDF on 12 August Handbook of Natural Gas Analysis. LA Sewers. Archived from the original on 12 October Archived from the original on 21 January California Energy Commission. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering.

Alternative Energy and Shale Gas Encyclopedia | Wiley Online Books

CNN Money. The New York Times. January Retrieved 24 November Society of Petroleum Engineers. Archived from the original PDF on 26 June Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals". Energia Mexicana in Spanish. Retrieved 18 June International Journal of Environmental Studies. PennWell Books. Journal of International Economics. Centre for Economic Performance. Archived from the original PDF on 1 July For both groups, this is a useful source of information.

Episode 78 - Educating the Public About Fracking - Isaac Orr